EDIT (August 2021): EIP-3529 has been included in the London hardfork deeming the economics behind GasTokens unviable. The post remains for historical insight.

This post aims to explore EVM gas dynamics in particular those of GasToken. This post requires an introductory to moderate level of technical understanding — the “Juicy Implementation Details” section can be skipped for those who do not care for the underlying mechanics.

Intro — gas basics

Ethereum has a gas accounting system introduced primarily to prevent the halting problem and to aid with avoidance of reentry attacks. This accounting system seems to be the most simplistic and thus robust (although…

This was too long for a tweet (and I don't tweet anyway).

Helping build a modern web project with a nonprofit over the past few months opened my eyes to the world of Typescript. If you haven't yet heard Typescript is a superset of Javascript, adding support for gradually typed strong types.

Thinking in terms of a gradually typed language was new to me. The capabilities and behaviour of the compiler were (expectedly) different from that of gcc. I found the following video helpful in understanding the concepts and relation to strongly typed programming.

This post aims to be a guide to different techniques, patterns and mechanisms utilised for sending transactions across the Ethereum ecosystem. This aims to be an evolving resource as more techniques emerge and thus should be considered a work in progress.

Included in this admittedly broad topic are:


Ethereum is an account based system. There are two types of account: Externally Owned Account and a Contract…

{This post is a continuation of a previous post.}

The concept of gas is unfamiliar to most non-technical users. However the idea of paying a transaction fee is not. Many traditional brick and mortar banks charge a fixed transaction fee for each debit card transaction, or roll these fees into a fixed quarterly “maintenance” fee. Indeed such is the perceived UX problem, some chains have moved to the reverse model where the executed contract pays for the gas, rather than the transaction sender.

Gas costs can be translated into monetary cost by the equation: Cost in $ = $/ETH *…

User experience is one of the biggest hurdles to mass adoption of cryptocurrencies. Similar to the sudden widespread emergence of Whatsapp as the dominant secure messaging app in many countries, there is an opportunity in the cryptocurrency space to gain mass adoption through simplicity of user experience. Included within the deliberately broad topic of UX are:

  • Onboarding (painful KYC experiences, confusion surrounding what is required to start)
  • User Interaction (addresses, unfamiliar logins/patterns/actions, finality effects, overly cluttered views)
  • Education (wtf is Cryptocurrency? Blockchain? Wallets? Exchanges? Gas?)
  • Price Stability (why would I use this? It’s too volatile)
  • Key Management (storage, usage and…

Ever since I heard the Rubberbandits song “Dads Best Friend” I had wanted to set up an online cheese store. An opportunity arose when a friend of mine, whose family owns a sheeps cheese production facility in my native Cratloe, Co. Clare approached me to revamp their website. The project provided me with an opportunity to improve my front end skills and also implement a Stripe powered e-store. After looking around I decided to implement the store using Snipcart, a ecommerce provider that provides a AJAX enabled secure shopping cart.

I was particularly interested in the security aspects of Snipcart…

For the past couple of months as part of my Masters in CS at Imperial, I’ve been developing EthCon Viewer, a versatile visualisation tool for Ethereum Smart Contracts. What follows is the abstract from my thesis:

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a trustless deterministic Turing complete distributed computer which achieves consensus on smart contract executions by all machines executing the same bytecode. This EVM is often referred to as the “World Computer” due to its mass distributed peer to peer nature.

The EVM is a registerless 256 bit stack based virtual machine with a limited instruction or opcode list…

Aodhgan Gleeson

Admirer of polynomials

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